Put the split peas and lentils in a large soup pot with 4 1/2 cups of water. Bring to a boil. Add the garlic, ginger, garam masala, turmeric, cayenne, cloves, bay leaves, chilies, and salt. Turn the heat down and simmer, covered, until the legumes are tender, but not falling apart, about 20 minutes. Stir occasionally to prevent sticking.